Carbon Pricing Around the world
UPDATE APRIL 3, 2023: Two more countries are pricing pollution. Japan’s new pollution pricing scheme will be phased in from April, while Australia’s first-ever price on carbon will come into effect in July. This means that 49 countries now have carbon pricing. Note the World Bank Carbon Pricing Dashboard has not been updated as if April 3, 2023.
Around the world, carbon pricing initiatives are driving emission reductions that cause climate change. Using data from 142 countries over two decades, researchers found that the average annual growth rate of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in countries with a carbon price to be 2 percentage points lower compared to countries without a carbon price (Carbon Pricing Efficacy: Cross-Country Evidence, 2020). Further, an additional euro per tonne of CO2 is associated with a reduction in the subsequent annual emissions growth rate of approximately 0.3 percentage points, all else equal.
Carbon pricing initiatives have been implemented or scheduled for implementation in 70 jurisdictions. This includes 47 national initiatives and 36 subnational initiatives. In 2022, these initiatives would cover 11.86 GtCO2e, representing 23.17 % of global GHG emissions. However, less than 4% of global emissions currently covered by a direct carbon price are within the price range needed by 2030 (range estimated by the CLPC, 40-80$/tCO2e). Prices must rise considerably to meet the Paris Agreement temperature goal of 1.5 degrees.
Recent carbon pricing initiatives:
- The World Bank, and several country partners including Canada, launched the Partnership for Market Implementation which will assist countries in the Global South in either improving their current carbon pricing or implementing carbon pricing.
- In 2022, Botswana announced plans to implement a price on carbon.
- On June 6, 2022, Canada and Chile, two countries that have implemented a carbon tax, issued an agreement to accelerate the adoption of carbon pricing around the world.
- On May 16, 2022, Canada and the EU issued a joint declaration confirming the willingness of the EU and Canada to coordinate on respective approaches to carbon pricing and carbon border adjustments to prevent carbon leakage. They also confirmed the intention of the EU and Canada to work together to engage international partners to expand the global coverage of carbon pricing.
- The European Union will enact border carbon adjustments by January 2023 to go into effect in 2026.
For the most up-to-date information, visit the World Bank’s Carbon Pricing Dashboard.
- World Bank State’s and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2021
- World Bank States and Trends on Carbon PricingExecutive_Summary 2022
- World Bank States and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2022